Question: What Is Serum Sickness Syndrome?

What are the 4 types of allergic reactions?

Type I: Immediate Hypersensitivity (Anaphylactic Reaction) These allergic reactions are systemic or localized, as in allergic dermatitis (e.g., hives, wheal and erythema reactions).

Type II: Cytotoxic Reaction (Antibody-dependent) …

Type III: Immune Complex Reaction.

Type IV: Cell-Mediated (Delayed Hypersensitivity).

What is type II hypersensitivity?

Type II Hypersensitivity (Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity) … Type II hypersensitivity reactions are mediated by antibodies directed against antigens on the surface of tissue or cells so that the tissue or cell is destroyed or the function of the cell is altered.

How do you get serum sickness?

Serum sickness is an immune response that’s similar to an allergic reaction. It happens when antigens (substances that trigger an immune response) in certain medications and antiserums cause your immune system to react. The antigens involved in serum sickness are proteins from nonhuman sources — usually animals.

Is serum sickness serious?

Serum sickness usually improves in 7 to 10 days, with full recovery in 2 to 4 weeks. However, it may lead to nervous system disorders and a life-threatening allergic reaction called anaphylaxis, so it is important to get medical treatment.

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is serum sickness?

Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction that results from the injection of heterologous or foreign protein or serum.

How long does serum sickness reaction last?

The onset of serum sickness-like reaction is usually 1–3 weeks (can be as early as 1–2 days) after exposure to the medication. The rash associated with serum sickness-like reaction is usually: Urticaria or hive-like lesions that last minutes to hours, reappearing elsewhere.

What medications cause serum sickness?

Some of the drugs associated with serum sickness are:allopurinol.barbiturates.captopril.cephalosporins.crofab.griseofulvin.penicillins.phenytoin.More items…

Can you get serum sickness from a bee sting?

Delayed Reaction to an Insect Sting Reactions occurring more than four hours after a bee or other insect sting are classified as delayed reactions. There have been isolated reports of serum sickness-like syndromes occurring about a week after a sting.

What causes rash and nausea?

Signs of Allergies. Food allergies are the most likely allergies to cause nausea and/or vomiting. … Histamine can cause a variety of symptoms, including rash, headache, sneezing, runny nose and swelling — and in the case of food allergies, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

What is an example of delayed hypersensitivity?

Examples of DTH reactions are contact dermatitis (eg, poison ivy rash), tuberculin skin test reactions, granulomatous inflammation (eg, sarcoidosis, Crohn disease), allograft rejection, graft versus host disease, and autoimmune hypersensitivity reactions.

What is a Type 4 hypersensitivity reaction?

Type IV hypersensitivity (also called delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]) involves T cell–antigen interactions that cause activation, cytokine secretion, and potential granuloma formation. This type of hypersensitivity requires sensitized lymphocytes that respond 24 to 48 hours after exposure to soluble antigen.

Is serum sickness an autoimmune disease?

Serum sickness is an immune complex–mediated hypersensitivity reaction characterized by fever, rash, arthritis, arthralgia, and other systemic symptoms. … With regard to patient education on serum sickness, the patient and his or her family should be advised of the nature of the offending agent.

Can serum sickness last for months?

Treatment of serum sickness-like reaction Affected children usually recover within a few days of ceasing the offending medication, without any consequences. There have been reports of prolonged rash and/or joint symptoms lasting for several months but these have eventually resolved completely.

What does serum sickness look like?

The onset of serum sickness-like reaction is usually 1–3 weeks (can be as early as 1–2 days) after exposure to the medication. The rash associated with serum sickness-like reaction is usually: Urticaria or hive-like lesions that last minutes to hours, reappearing elsewhere. Often intensely itchy.

Can a bee sting cause serum sickness?

Serum sickness is a type of delayed reaction that occurs a week to 10 days after a sting and may cause itching, rash, fever, joint pain, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.

What is acute serum sickness?

Serum sickness is an immune-complex-mediated hypersensitivity reaction that classically presents with fever, rash, polyarthritis or polyarthralgias. It was first recognized as an entity in the early 1900s in patients who had received heterologous antisera, which was historically used to treat infectious diseases.

How do you test for serum sickness?

The following studies are indicated in patients with serum sickness:CBC with differential – Leukocytosis or leukopenia, eosinophilia, or mild thrombocytopenia.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels – Usually slightly elevated.Urinalysis – Proteinuria, hematuria, active sediment.More items…•

How do you prevent serum sickness?

There is no known way to prevent the development of serum sickness. People who have had serum sickness or drug allergy should avoid future use of the antiserum or drug.